Welcome to the PerGeos Use Case Gallery

Below you will find a collection of use cases using PerGeos Software. Based on the technology of its predecessor Avizo Software, PerGeos is a robust software platform for visualizing, processing, and analyzing 2D and 3D digital rock image data.

These use cases include scientific publications, articles, papers, posters, presentations or even videos that show how PerGeos is used to address various scientific and industrial research topics.

Integration of Large-Area Scanning-Electron-Microscopy Imaging and Automated Mineralogy/Petrography Data for Selection of Nanoscale Pore-Space Characterization Sites

Integration of Large-Area Scanning-Electron-Microscopy Imaging and Automated Mineralogy/Petrography Data for Selection of Nanoscale Pore-Space Characterization Sites

The task of reliable characterization of complex reservoirs is tightly coupled to studying their microstructure at a variety of scales, which requires a departure from traditional petrophysical approaches and delving into the world of nanoscale. A promising method of representatively retaining a large volume of a rock sample while achieving nanoscale resolution is based on multiscale digital rock technology. The smallest scale of this approach is often realized in the form of working with sev... Read more

Andrey Kazak - Svyatoslav Chugunov - Anatolii Chashkov

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Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Fractures are crucial for unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation, but it is difficult to accurately observe the 3D spatial distribution characteristics of fractures. Microtomography (micro-CT) technology makes it possible to observe the 3D structures of fractures at micro-scale. In this study, micron-CT scanning is conducted on multiple mud-shale samples of source rocks in the Permian Lucaogou Formation, Junggar Basin. The Avizo software is applied to process and segment the micron-CT images... Read more

Chao Qi, Xiaoqi Wang, Wei Wang, Jie Liu, Jincai Tuo, Keyu Liu

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Analyzing the Relationship between Capillary Pressure, Saturation, and Interfacial Area for a Three-Phase Flow System in Porous Media

Analyzing the Relationship between Capillary Pressure, Saturation, and Interfacial Area for a Three-Phase Flow System in Porous Media

In this study, we examined the relationship between capillary pressure, saturation, and interfacial area for a three-phase flow system. Using x-ray microtomography we were able to capture high-resolution three-dimensional images of the flow system, from which the saturation, interfacial area, and capillary pressure were determined.

Multi-phase flow in porous media includes many instances of subsurface flow. Three-phase flow in particular is important in situations of enhanced oil recov... Read more

Rebecca Paustian

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Pore‐Scale Experimental Investigation of Two‐Phase Flow Through Fractured Porous Media

Pore‐Scale Experimental Investigation of Two‐Phase Flow Through Fractured Porous Media

Understanding transport mechanisms that govern two-phase flow in fractured porous media has direct implications for natural and industrial processes such as extraction of hydrocarbons from fractured reservoirs, geologic sequestration of CO2, or fluid flow through aquifers.

We present the results of a systematic pore‐scale experimental investigation of two‐phase oil/brine flow through a miniature water‐wet, fractured sandstone core sample. X‐ray microtomography is employed to ge... Read more

M. Arshadi, M. Khishvand, A. Aghaei, M. Piri, G. A. Al‐Muntasheri

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Combining high-resolution with larger volume images for improved characterization of mudstone reservoirs

Combining high-resolution with larger volume images for improved characterization of mudstone reservoirs

Optimization of production from shale reservoirs requires understanding of rock properties over a range of scales.

Multiple imaging techniques can be combined to determine the nature, connectivity, and wettability of nano-scale pore systems as well as the underlying mineralogy and organic textures that control reservoir behavior and the propensity of the matrix to fail and to contain expulsion cracks. The current study demonstrates new capabilities in integrated multiscale and time-res... Read more

Andrew Fogden, Alession Arena, Christopher Zhang, Ryan T. Armstrong

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The variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the effect of compaction on the relative permeability of an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir

The variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the effect of compaction on the relative permeability of an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir

This study investigated the influence of compaction on the variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the relative permeability of unconsolidated sandstone.

Firstly, triaxial mechanical experiments, CT scans, and mercury injection experiments were performed to analyze the microstructural characteristics and the macroscopic mechanism of changes in the petrophysical characteristics under different pressure. Secondly, a modified permeability test approach was adopted on reservoir... Read more

Yu Xiong, Hongguang Xu, Yongqing Wang, Wensheng Zhou, Ling Wang, Kai Feng

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X-ray computed tomography of planetary materials: A primer and review of recent studies

X-ray computed tomography of planetary materials: A primer and review of recent studies

X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a powerful 3D imaging technique that has been used to investigate meteorites, mission-returned samples, and other planetary materials of all scales from dust particles to large rocks.

With this technique, a 3D volume representing the X-ray attenuation (which is sensitive to composition and density) of the materials within an object is produced, allowing various components and textures to be observed and quantified. As with any analytical technique, a ... Read more

Romy D. Hanna, Richard A. Ketcham

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Computational elastic up‐scaling of sandstone on the basis of X‐ray micro‐tomographic images

Computational elastic up‐scaling of sandstone on the basis of X‐ray micro‐tomographic images

Up‐scaling the elastic properties of digitized rock volumes as obtained from X‐ray computer tomography (CT) imaging via computer simulations has the potential to assist and complement laboratory measurements.

This computational up‐scaling approach remains a challenging task as the overall elastic properties are not only dependent on the elastic properties of individual grains but also on the hardly resolvable pore spaces between adjacent grains such as micro‐cracks. We develop ... Read more

Valeriya Shulakova, Marina Pervukhina, Tobias M. Müller, Maxim Lebedev, Sherry Mayo, Susanne Schmid, Pavel Golodoniuc, Osni Bastos De Paula, Michael B. Clennell, Boris Gurevich

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In Situ Chemically-Selective Monitoring of Multiphase Displacement Processes in a Carbonate Rock Using 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In Situ Chemically-Selective Monitoring of Multiphase Displacement Processes in a Carbonate Rock Using 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Accurate monitoring of multiphase displacement processes is essential for the development, validation and benchmarking of numerical models used for reservoir simulation and for asset characterization.

Here we demonstrate the first application of a chemically-selective 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which provides high-temporal resolution, quantitative, spatially resolved information of oil and water saturations during a dynamic imbibition core flood experiment in an Esta... Read more

N. P. Ramskill, A. J. Sederman, M. D. Mantle, M. Appel, H. de Jong, L. F. Gladden

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Pore characterization of 3D-printed gypsum rocks: a comprehensive approach

Pore characterization of 3D-printed gypsum rocks: a comprehensive approach

With advancements in additive manufacturing, now 3D-printed core plugs can be duplicated in order to replace natural rock samples. This can help us to control their parameters to be used in different types of experiments for model verifications.

However, prior to such substitutions, we should ensure they can represent natural rock samples through characterizing their physical properties. In this paper, synthetic samples made up of gypsum powder are 3D-printed and then characterized for... Read more

Lingyun Kong, Mehdi Ostadhassan, Chunxiao Li, Naser Tamimi

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Quantification of the microstructure, effective hydraulic radius and effective transport properties changed by the coke deposition during the crude oil in-situ combustion

Quantification of the microstructure, effective hydraulic radius and effective transport properties changed by the coke deposition during the crude oil in-situ combustion

Coke deposition during crude oil in-situ combustion (ISC) is an important phenomenon that significantly impacts the pore topology and permeability.

In this study, X-ray computed microtomography and a specific image processing procedure were used to reconstruct the micro-tomographic images of packed beds with coke deposition. From the reconstructed images, the microstructural parameters related to the transport were analyzed, such as the effective porosity, the constrictivity and the ge... Read more

Qianghui Xu, Wei Long, Hang Jiang, Bin Ma, Cheng Zan, Desheng Ma, Lin Shi

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A Bridge With MAPS Mineralogy PerGeos v1.7

A Bridge With MAPS Mineralogy PerGeos v1.7

With the introduction of the Maps Mineralogy™ software suite, the successor of Qemscan, the technology has evolved, thanks to multiple patents bringing novel methods to acquire mineralogical information from digital rock samples with a modern and user friendly interface.

However, given the hardware technology advances and the emergence of new challenges in reservoir rocks, there is a need to fusion the mineralogical image and the back scattered electron... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Analyzing Full Micro-CT Image of a Berea Sandstone Mini Plug and the Associated Challenges

Analyzing Full Micro-CT Image of a Berea Sandstone Mini Plug and the Associated Challenges

X-ray micro-CT imaging is becoming an integral part of rock characterization processes. Large data size, user bias, and accuracy of the results are some of the challenges associated with analyzing micro-CT images of rock samples.

In this article, the PerGeos Digital Rock Analysis software is demonstrated to analyze the full micro-CT dataset of a Berea sandstone mini plug. The analysis is done in blocks using a PerGeos recipe (i.e. a macro) and a block-processing script. The results are... Read more

Arash Aghaei - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Handling Large data in PerGeos

Handling Large data in PerGeos

We introduce here some techniques to visualize and process large data, mostly targeting the high resolution data acquired by Heliscan microCT.

The data is considered as “large” in the sense that its size exceeds the size of the GPU memory and/or the size of the RAM of the machine.

The following workflow:

  • Segmentation
  • Porosity / Connected porosity determination
  • Pore separation / Pore Size distribution
  • Grain size distribution
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Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Pore-backs segmentation in PerGeos

Pore-backs segmentation in PerGeos

Imagery produced from FIBSEMs (Dualbeams) provides users with unique data in terms of resolution and sample size that are not available with other techniques. Despite the power of this analytical approach, some limitations in quantifying the textural data restrict the accuracy of data obtained from FIBSEM images.

These limitations are derived from artifacts that occur during the acquisition of the data. Collecting data using a FIBSEM is a destructive, serial sectioning technique. A thi... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Segmentation tools and workflows in PerGeos

Segmentation tools and workflows in PerGeos

Imagery produced from FIBSEMs (Dualbeams) provides users with unique data in terms of resolution and sample size that are not available with other techniques. Despite the power of this analytical approach, some limitations in quantifying the textural data restrict the accuracy of data obtained from FIBSEM images.

Segmentation typically consists of a complex workflow involving multiple algorithms at multiple steps. Smart denoising and morphological filters are often included in the segm... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Simple Rock Characterization in PerGeos v1.7

Simple Rock Characterization in PerGeos v1.7

A key benefit to obtaining digital imagery data is the ability to use all parts of the imaged sample for characterization purposes-not just what you have time to explore manually. This is especially the case with large datasets that are created during acquisition of 2D mosaic images or Whole Core CT imagery.

In these cases, a representative area or volume of material has been obtained. The next step will be to extract features, like porosity, for analysis.

But, what else can we ... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock’s relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography.

First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-i... Read more

Tom Bultreys, Qingyang Lin, Ying Gao, Ali Q. Raeini, Ahmed AlRatrout, Branko Bijeljic, and Martin J. Blunt

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Heterogeneity Logs  in PerGeos 1.5

Heterogeneity Logs in PerGeos 1.5

The Core Profile workspace of PerGeos already provides the right tools to visualize logs, CT cores, Bore Hole images and Photographs.

A unique preprocessing step allows the cores barrel to be intelligently removed, the core to be re-oriented if it is not perfectly vertical, and all the cores to be stitched together regardless of the total size.

This allows a user to browse in real time an entire 3D digital well of 100+ cores and apply post-processing operations such as logs gene... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Improving Whole Core Characterization with Automated Log Generation in PerGeos

Improving Whole Core Characterization with Automated Log Generation in PerGeos

The Core Profile Extension, available for PerGeos, provides a powerful toolset for visualization and analysis of whole core CT data. Within this extension the user can load and visualize an entire wells worth of CT data as well as performing detailed analysis of geological and chemical features by utilizing the powerful image analysis library fundamental to PerGeos.

In this example, we illustrate the usefulness of core profile in augmenting traditional core analysis routines and provid... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Multi-scale multi-dimensional microstructure imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using X-ray micro-tomography and Electron Microscopy

Multi-scale multi-dimensional microstructure imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using X-ray micro-tomography and Electron Microscopy

The complexity of unconventional rock systems is expressed both in the compositional variance of the microstructure and the extensive heterogeneity of the pore space. Visualizing and quantifying the microstructure of oil shale before and after pyrolysis permits a more accurate determination of petrophysical properties which are important in modeling hydrocarbon production potential. We characterize the microstructural heterogeneity of oil shale using X-ray micro-tomography (µCT), automated u... Read more

Imperial College London, Tarik Saif, Qingyang Lin, Alan R.Butcher, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J.Blunt

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