Welcome to the PerGeos Use Case Gallery

Below you will find a collection of use cases using PerGeos Software. Based on the technology of its predecessor Avizo Software, PerGeos is a robust software platform for visualizing, processing, and analyzing 2D and 3D digital rock image data.

These use cases include scientific publications, articles, papers, posters, presentations or even videos that show how PerGeos is used to address various scientific and industrial research topics.

Characterizing the Evolution of Trapped scCO2 Curvature in Bentheimer and Nugget Sandstone Pore Geometry

Characterizing the Evolution of Trapped scCO2 Curvature in Bentheimer and Nugget Sandstone Pore Geometry

During a Geologic Carbon Storage process, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is subjected to a series of dynamic and static conditions where the relationship between pore geometry and the trapped scCO2 curvature remains to be established. To mimic the dynamic process, two sandstones, Bentheimer and Nugget, were subjected to two successive drainage and imbibition (D-I) cycles and X-ray computed tomography scanned at each residual state to capture the wettability evolu... Read more

Laura E. Dalton, Dustin Crandall, Angela Goodman

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Major advance in well bore analysis with CT inspection

Major advance in well bore analysis with CT inspection

Premier, COREX has been providing core analytical services to the oil and gas industry for more than 30 years. Within the last decade it has augmented its rock core investigations by sending samples for analysis approximately every week to Nikon Metrology’s centre of excellence for micro-focus computed tomography (micro-CT) in Tring, Hertfordshire.

Drilling for oil or gas is an expensive business, whether offshore or on land, so it is essential for E&P (exploration and producti... Read more

Nikon

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Experimental Investigation of 3D Printed Rock Samples Replicas

Experimental Investigation of 3D Printed Rock Samples Replicas

Laboratory Experiments on rock specimens are designed for understanding and characterizing subsurface environment, quantifying potential recovery, and tuning fluid flow models in porous media. The spatial variability and reservoirs’ heterogeneities predicate acquiring expensive cores from different locations. These experiments are mechanically and petrophysically destructive and cannot be repeated or extended on the same core. Replicating core samples with 3D-printing technology innovation ... Read more

Ahmed G.Almetwally, H.Jabbari

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Uncertainty span for relative permeability and capillary pressure by varying wettability and spatial flow directions utilizing pore scale modelling

Uncertainty span for relative permeability and capillary pressure by varying wettability and spatial flow directions utilizing pore scale modelling

Relative permeability and capillary pressure are key properties within special core analysis and provide crucial information for full field simulation models. These properties are traditionally obtained by multi-phase flow experiments, however pore scale modelling has during the last decade shown to add significant information as well as being less time-consuming to obtain. Pore scale modelling has been performed by using the lattice-Boltzmann method directly on the digital rock models obtain... Read more

ThomasRamstad, Anders Kristoffersen, and EinarEbeltoft

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Computational elastic upscaling of sandstone on the basis of X‐ray micro‐tomographic images

Computational elastic upscaling of sandstone on the basis of X‐ray micro‐tomographic images

Up‐scaling the elastic properties of digitized rock volumes as obtained from X‐ray computer tomography (CT) imaging via computer simulations has the potential to assist and complement laboratory measurements.

This computational up‐scaling approach remains a challenging task as the overall elastic properties are not only dependent on the elastic properties of individual grains but also on the hardly resolvable pore spaces between adjacent grains such as micro‐cracks. We develop ... Read more

Valeriya Shulakova, Marina Pervukhina, Tobias M. Müller, Maxim Lebedev, Sherry Mayo, Susanne Schmid, Pavel Golodoniuc, Osni Bastos De Paula, Michael B. Clennell, Boris Gurevich

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Integration of Large-Area Scanning-Electron-Microscopy Imaging and Automated Mineralogy/Petrography Data for Selection of Nanoscale Pore-Space Characterization Sites

Integration of Large-Area Scanning-Electron-Microscopy Imaging and Automated Mineralogy/Petrography Data for Selection of Nanoscale Pore-Space Characterization Sites

The task of reliable characterization of complex reservoirs is tightly coupled to studying their microstructure at a variety of scales, which requires a departure from traditional petrophysical approaches and delving into the world of nanoscale. A promising method of representatively retaining a large volume of a rock sample while achieving nanoscale resolution is based on multiscale digital rock technology. The smallest scale of this approach is often realized in the form of working with sev... Read more

Andrey Kazak - Svyatoslav Chugunov - Anatolii Chashkov

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Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Three-dimensional characterization of micro-fractures in shale reservoir rocks

Fractures are crucial for unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation, but it is difficult to accurately observe the 3D spatial distribution characteristics of fractures. Microtomography (micro-CT) technology makes it possible to observe the 3D structures of fractures at micro-scale. In this study, micron-CT scanning is conducted on multiple mud-shale samples of source rocks in the Permian Lucaogou Formation, Junggar Basin. The Avizo software is applied to process and segment the micron-CT images... Read more

Chao Qi, Xiaoqi Wang, Wei Wang, Jie Liu, Jincai Tuo, Keyu Liu

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Pore‐Scale Experimental Investigation of Two‐Phase Flow Through Fractured Porous Media

Pore‐Scale Experimental Investigation of Two‐Phase Flow Through Fractured Porous Media

Understanding transport mechanisms that govern two-phase flow in fractured porous media has direct implications for natural and industrial processes such as extraction of hydrocarbons from fractured reservoirs, geologic sequestration of CO2, or fluid flow through aquifers.

We present the results of a systematic pore‐scale experimental investigation of two‐phase oil/brine flow through a miniature water‐wet, fractured sandstone core sample. X‐ray microtomography is employed to ge... Read more

M. Arshadi, M. Khishvand, A. Aghaei, M. Piri, G. A. Al‐Muntasheri

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Combining high-resolution with larger volume images for improved characterization of mudstone reservoirs

Combining high-resolution with larger volume images for improved characterization of mudstone reservoirs

Optimization of production from shale reservoirs requires understanding of rock properties over a range of scales.

Multiple imaging techniques can be combined to determine the nature, connectivity, and wettability of nano-scale pore systems as well as the underlying mineralogy and organic textures that control reservoir behavior and the propensity of the matrix to fail and to contain expulsion cracks. The current study demonstrates new capabilities in integrated multiscale and time-res... Read more

Andrew Fogden, Alession Arena, Christopher Zhang, Ryan T. Armstrong

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The variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the effect of compaction on the relative permeability of an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir

The variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the effect of compaction on the relative permeability of an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir

This study investigated the influence of compaction on the variation mechanism of petrophysical properties and the relative permeability of unconsolidated sandstone.

Firstly, triaxial mechanical experiments, CT scans, and mercury injection experiments were performed to analyze the microstructural characteristics and the macroscopic mechanism of changes in the petrophysical characteristics under different pressure. Secondly, a modified permeability test approach was adopted on reservoir... Read more

Yu Xiong, Hongguang Xu, Yongqing Wang, Wensheng Zhou, Ling Wang, Kai Feng

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Pore characterization of 3D-printed gypsum rocks: a comprehensive approach

Pore characterization of 3D-printed gypsum rocks: a comprehensive approach

With advancements in additive manufacturing, now 3D-printed core plugs can be duplicated in order to replace natural rock samples. This can help us to control their parameters to be used in different types of experiments for model verifications.

However, prior to such substitutions, we should ensure they can represent natural rock samples through characterizing their physical properties. In this paper, synthetic samples made up of gypsum powder are 3D-printed and then characterized for... Read more

Lingyun Kong, Mehdi Ostadhassan, Chunxiao Li, Naser Tamimi

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Quantification of the microstructure, effective hydraulic radius and effective transport properties changed by the coke deposition during the crude oil in-situ combustion

Quantification of the microstructure, effective hydraulic radius and effective transport properties changed by the coke deposition during the crude oil in-situ combustion

Coke deposition during crude oil in-situ combustion (ISC) is an important phenomenon that significantly impacts the pore topology and permeability.

In this study, X-ray computed microtomography and a specific image processing procedure were used to reconstruct the micro-tomographic images of packed beds with coke deposition. From the reconstructed images, the microstructural parameters related to the transport were analyzed, such as the effective porosity, the constrictivity and the ge... Read more

Qianghui Xu, Wei Long, Hang Jiang, Bin Ma, Cheng Zan, Desheng Ma, Lin Shi

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Analyzing Full Micro-CT Image of a Berea Sandstone Mini Plug and the Associated Challenges

Analyzing Full Micro-CT Image of a Berea Sandstone Mini Plug and the Associated Challenges

X-ray micro-CT imaging is becoming an integral part of rock characterization processes. Large data size, user bias, and accuracy of the results are some of the challenges associated with analyzing micro-CT images of rock samples.

In this article, the PerGeos Digital Rock Analysis software is demonstrated to analyze the full micro-CT dataset of a Berea sandstone mini plug. The analysis is done in blocks using a PerGeos recipe (i.e. a macro) and a block-processing script. The results are... Read more

Arash Aghaei - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Handling Large data in PerGeos

Handling Large data in PerGeos

We introduce here some techniques to visualize and process large data, mostly targeting the high resolution data acquired by Heliscan microCT.

The data is considered as “large” in the sense that its size exceeds the size of the GPU memory and/or the size of the RAM of the machine.

The following workflow:

  • Segmentation
  • Porosity / Connected porosity determination
  • Pore separation / Pore Size distribution
  • Grain size distribution
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Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Pore-backs segmentation in PerGeos

Pore-backs segmentation in PerGeos

Imagery produced from FIBSEMs (Dualbeams) provides users with unique data in terms of resolution and sample size that are not available with other techniques. Despite the power of this analytical approach, some limitations in quantifying the textural data restrict the accuracy of data obtained from FIBSEM images.

These limitations are derived from artifacts that occur during the acquisition of the data. Collecting data using a FIBSEM is a destructive, serial sectioning technique. A thi... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Simple Rock Characterization in PerGeos v1.7

Simple Rock Characterization in PerGeos v1.7

A key benefit to obtaining digital imagery data is the ability to use all parts of the imaged sample for characterization purposes-not just what you have time to explore manually. This is especially the case with large datasets that are created during acquisition of 2D mosaic images or Whole Core CT imagery.

In these cases, a representative area or volume of material has been obtained. The next step will be to extract features, like porosity, for analysis.

But, what else can we ... Read more

Gwenole Tallec - Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock’s relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography.

First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-i... Read more

Tom Bultreys, Qingyang Lin, Ying Gao, Ali Q. Raeini, Ahmed AlRatrout, Branko Bijeljic, and Martin J. Blunt

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Multi-scale multi-dimensional microstructure imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using X-ray micro-tomography and Electron Microscopy

Multi-scale multi-dimensional microstructure imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using X-ray micro-tomography and Electron Microscopy

The complexity of unconventional rock systems is expressed both in the compositional variance of the microstructure and the extensive heterogeneity of the pore space. Visualizing and quantifying the microstructure of oil shale before and after pyrolysis permits a more accurate determination of petrophysical properties which are important in modeling hydrocarbon production potential. We characterize the microstructural heterogeneity of oil shale using X-ray micro-tomography (µCT), automated u... Read more

Imperial College London, Tarik Saif, Qingyang Lin, Alan R.Butcher, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J.Blunt

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Pore-scale evolution of trapped CO2 at early stages following imbibition using micro-CT imaging

Pore-scale evolution of trapped CO2 at early stages following imbibition using micro-CT imaging

Despite its major influence on storage capacity, CO2 plume migration rate, and rates of CO2 dissolution and mineralization, there are outstanding questions regarding the mechanisms, times scales, influence of geological heterogeneity, and degree of residual trapping. The aim of the present study is to track temporal evolution of residually-trapped scCO2 ganglia during the early stages following imbibition, extract critical parameters such as fluid phase connectivity and scCO2 cluster size an... Read more

Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford University | Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences

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Laboratory Noble Gas Migration Experiments Through Rock

Laboratory Noble Gas Migration Experiments Through Rock

The Underground Nuclear Explosion Signature Experiment (UNESE) is a multi-laboratory effort to improve U.S. capabilities to detect, locate, identify, and characterize underground nuclear explosions. Here we present a lab-scale experiment developed to test advective gas transport though rock samples at in-situ conditions, and results of tests performed at ambient conditions on rocks collected from the site of a field-scale experiment. Gas transport results are compared to pore and fracture net... Read more

Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory

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Pore-Scale observations of the effect of surface treated nanoparticles on drainage processes

Pore-Scale observations of the effect of surface treated nanoparticles on drainage processes

In this study we observe, using pore scale X-ray micro-CT imaging and advanced petrophysical analysis, how surface treated silica nanoparticles improve sweep efficiency of n-octane in drainage corefloods. Specifically, upon injection of n-octane into a brine saturated core, preferential flow paths are observed and attributed to both viscous instability and rock heterogeneity; when the displaced phase contains a modest volume of nanoparticles, the same preferential flow paths are suppressed re... Read more

Department of Petroleum Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin | Departments of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary | Materials & Structural Analysis, Thermo Fisher Scientific

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